This is the compass, which is shown at the top of your screen. You can see the planet name at the top right (in this case, Lasaina)
The purple icons represent Portals. These portals will lead either to other parts of the planet, or new planets entirely, some of which contain the resources you desire
A bunch of portals together means you’ve likely found a hub leading to many planets.
Use these to get around.
In addition, you might find benefit to reading my new player guide, might help explain some game mechanics: