Welcome to Boundless, @Ascalar!
There are currently twelve worlds on the live build. They're split into four server groups; Oceanic, US West, US East, and Europe. You will find your ping is generally better in your region, but that should deter you from visiting or even setting up on other worlds!
Venv V (Starter), Andooweem (Moon) and Alturnik (Ring) are all Oceanic worlds.
Berlyn (Starter), Elopor (Moon) and Nasharil (Ring) are all US West worlds.
Solum (Starter), Epsilo (Moon) and Vulpto (Ring) are all US East worlds.
Therka (Starter), Septerfon (Moon) and Munteen VII (Ring) are all European worlds.
The largest settlements as of right now (to my knowledge) are Therka Market, Elop Portas, Pixel Gate, and Dragon's Watch - though there are quite a few others dotted about, and a new town being built not far from you on Andooweem; Tjentzu.
If you have any queries about what to do or where to go, just ask here and someone will help out.
I'll get you started; @Jeffrotheswell has a handy chain of portals that can take you anywhere you need to go. You can find a link in this chain on your homeworld of Vena V at these coordinate; -2194, 64, 1740.
Have fun! Stay safe, and watch out for Spitters!